By Peter W. Hawkes (Ed.)
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In line with the basics of electromagnetics, this transparent and concise textual content explains simple and utilized rules of transformer and inductor layout for energy digital functions. It information either the speculation and perform of inductors and transformers hired to filter out currents, shop electromagnetic power, offer actual isolation among circuits, and practice stepping up and down of DC and AC voltages.
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Extra resources for Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 70
The dark area indicates a large value of the signal 161,(x, y)(. The dashed lines mark the boundary of the tunneling window. 2 K, beam voltage = 26 kV, beam current = 10-100 PA. (c) SEM micrograph of the specimen. (From Bosch, 1986). SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AT VERY LOW TEMPERATURES 39 161,(x,y)Jis shown in Fig. 25(b). Here the signal is used for modulating the brightness on the oscilloscope screen. The dark area indicates large values of the signal 161,(x, y)l. The position of the tunneling window is marked by the dashed lines.
Of course, from these latter experiments the value of the Josephson penetration depth ;1 can be obtained. The evolution of the different vortex states in an increasing magnetic field parallel to the junction barrier (Bosch, 1986) can be seen in Fig. 15. Here the sample geometry is similar to that of Figs. 13 and 14, with a sapphire substrate and Nb groundplane covered by a SiO insulating film. The base electrode is a PbIn film of 109 nm thickness and the top electrode a PbBi film of 250 nm SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AT VERY LOW TEMPERATURES 25 + I Magnetic Field [mAl Generating Current IF 0 Be f 100 JJA 3 50pA 91 pm __* Y FIG.
Typical results are presented in Fig. 22. The inset shows the IVC of the injector junction and the bias points (black dots) at which the voltage images were recorded. Image (a) was obtained with a bias point in the thermal tunneling regime and shows the spatial distribution of the quasiparticle tunneling current density. Obviously an inhomogeneity in the barrier results in a relatively sharp peak of the tunneling current density in the middle of the junction. Also near the middle of the right edge of the injector junction the current density is slightly increased.