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In other words, they were lucky enough to have encountered a slow-growing form of HIV at a time when their bodies had the ammunition to keep it at bay. Not Found in Nature? A I D S V A C C I N E developers have struggled for decades to find the “correlates of immunity” for HIV— the magic combination of immune responses that, once induced by a vaccine, would protect someone against infection. But they keep coming up empty-handed, which leaves them with no road map to guide them in the search for an AIDS vaccine.
The immune system soon recovers somewhat, however, and keeps HIV levels fairly steady for several years. Eventually, though, the virus gains the upper hand. AIDS is diagnosed when the CD4 T cell level drops below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood or when opportunistic infections (reflecting failed immunity) arise, whichever happens first. 30 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN EXCLUSIVE ONLINE ISSUE COPYRIGHT 2003 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. harbors this integrated DNA (or provirus) becomes activated against HIV or other microbes, the cell replicates and also unwittingly begins to produce new copies of both the viral genome and viral proteins.
Because this genetically engineered canarypox virus (made by Aventis Pasteur, headquartered in Lyons, France) enters cells and causes them to display fragments of HIV on their surface, it stimulates the cellular arm of the immune system. Political wrangling and questions over its scientific value have slowed widespread testing of the gp120/canarypox vaccine. S. Department of Defense were scheduled to conduct essentially duplicate trials of the vaccine. But NIAID pulled the plug on its trial after an examination of the data from a phase II study showed that fewer than 30 percent of the volunteers generated cytotoxic T cells against HIV.