By Alberdina Houtman, E Staalduine-Sulman, Hans-Martin Kirn
What's the use of a Targum in a cultural atmosphere the place Aramaic isn't really a standard language anymore? And why might Christians have an interest in a quite often Jewish textual content in an another way anti-Jewish milieu? those and similar questions have served as courses for Alberdina Houtman, Eveline van Staalduine-Sulman and Hans-Martin Kirn in bringing jointly the articles for the current booklet, which is composed of 3 elements: 1. makes use of and features of Targum in Europe; 2. enhancing Targums and their Latin Translations; three. Targums and Christianity. the various articles take care of the codicological and paratextual facets of the appropriate manuscripts and variations as witnesses in their cultural old events. The meant readership contains experts in Targum, Jewish and medieval experiences, (church) historians, codicologists and (Christian) theologians.
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Additional info for A Jewish Targum in a Christian World
Ms 198, Żydowski Instytut Historyczny, Warsaw). Hebrew translation of Targum. ) translations of Targums to the Writings exist. A ‘translation’ of the Targums to the Megillot into Hebrew is worthwhile, since some of the Targum Megillot are very paraphrastic in nature. The Italian ms parm. 2554 • • 3 See further E. M. Tanja, ‘Christian Arguments for Including Targums in Polyglot Bibles’ in this volume. 16 van staalduine-sulman • (Biblioteca Palatina, Parma), dated c. 1600, contains the Hebrew translation of the Targums to the Megillot.
Christian authors used it sometimes to gain a better understanding of the Hebrew text. The Targum left quite a trail in Europe, mostly in Jewish contexts, but from the twelfth century onward also in Christian theology. , Grammaticae Chaldaicae et Syriacae Libri III, Basel 1615. , Chaldaica Grammatica, Basel 1527. , Jewish Liturgy. A Comprehensive History, Philadelphia / New York 1993. M. & B. Chilton, The Targums. A Critical Edition (Studies in Aramaic Interpretation of Scripture, 12), Leiden / Boston 2011.
For all the categories it must be reckoned that a manuscript containing the entire Bible occurs in all three categories. Table 1 Distribution of Onkelos, Jonathan and Targum Writings Targum Onkelos Targum Jonathan Targum Writings Cairo Genizah Eastern script excluding CG Total Eastern script 1,000 (63%) 332 (43%) 400 (25%) 330 (43%) 180 (12%) 103 (14%) 1,580 765 1,332 (57%) 730 (31%) 283 (12%) 2,345 Ashkenazi script Italian script Sephardi script Total Western script 252 (65%) 61 (54%) 57 (47%) 370 (60%) 95 (25%) 40 (36%) 47 (38%) 182 (29%) 40 (10%) 11 (10%) 18 (15%) 69 (11%) 387 112 122 621 26 van staalduine-sulman The table shows that the number of manuscripts found in the Cairo Genizah is enormous, although most ‘manuscripts’ only consist of a small fragment.